EXPANSION IN EDUCATION
There was great expansion in education. Intermediate Colleges were opened at Athmuqam, Dhirkot, Danna, Abbaspur, Kahuta, Garhi Dopatta. Chikar, Chinari, Dadyal, Sehnsa, Nakiyal, Khuiratta and Afzalpur. Inter Colleges for girls were opened at Akalgarh, Dadyal and Kotli. Similarly, many a Middle school was upgraded. 500 primary schools were claimed to have been opened. As the Government could ill-afford to meet the expenditure, two to three lecturers from each existing College were withdrawn and posted in the new Colleges, along with two or three new recruits, to make up for the staff of a newly-opened college! Similarly, teachers were withdrawn from High Schools and Middle Schools and posted to upgraded or newly opened schools. The result was that some High Schools were left with six to seven teachers only who had to perform the miracle of teaching ten classes. Science teachers of experience were posted as Principals of new Colleges where Science subjects were not taught. There was, therefore, rapid deterioration in the standard of teaching. Some cynic remarked that the Government had conspired against the country by thus destroying the coming generation! It may be remarked here that almost all educational institutions were already understaffed. Many of the High Schools and Colleges were still without science classes or equipment. No High School has more than a hundred books or two in its library. These deficiencies should not have been multiplied. In Pakistan and India at least 7 High Schools are a pre-requisite for an Intermediate College in order to ensure an adequate number of students. At Athmuqam there is only one High School, so is the case with the colleges opened at Abbaspur, Kahuta, Nakiyal and Danna. Kahuta and Abbaspur constitute half of what was Haveli tehsil before the war of liberation. At Athmuqam, only one student sought admission in the Ist year in 1973 and both at Kahuta and Abbaspur, the total number did not exceed seven. Same was the case at Chikar and Chinari. The extra funds thus needed were raised by imposing I% education tax on Government servants and forest lessees. Here are some facts: In 1976 spring exams, 1 134 students appeared in the Inter exam from 29 Colleges, out of whom only 230 students cleared it. No student could clear theexamfromfive Colleges: Athmuqam, Danna, Chikar, Sehnsa and Afzalpur. Out of 29 Colleges, not less than 20 were without laboratories and libraries even in mid 1976.1 Apart from this general criticism, the fear that some people have is that in a few years when hundreds of Art graduates start coming out, there being no corresponding avenuesfor their employment their unemployment may ultimately bring Communism to Azad Kashmir. It can, however, be said in support of this policy that it has taken education upto Intermediate level to poorer homes who could not afford to educate their boys outside their small habitations.